Dielectric constant dk

Große Auswahl an ‪Dielectric - Dielectric

Many engineers are taught that a circuit material's dielectric constant, or relative permittivity or Dk as it is also known, is a fixed value for a given material. In truth, the Dk values listed by materials manufacturers on their data sheets are numbers from a specific test method at a specific frequency, and the value will change under different conditions have a Dk value that is signifi cantly different when tested with these other methods. Comparisons between Clamped stripline and other test methods A simple graphic representation of the clamped stripline test method is given in fi gure 1. General Information of Dielectric Constant for RT/duroid® 6010.2LM and RO3010™ Hig List of dielectric constants Substance Substanz Dielectric Constant Benzyl^amine Benzylamin 4,6 Bitumen Bitumen 2,8 Black liquor Schwarzlauge 32,0 Bone fat Knochenfett 2,7 Bonemeal Knochenfuttermehl 1,7 Bore oil emulsion Bohröl-Emulsion 25,0 Bornylacetat Bornylacetat 4,6 Bromine Brom 3,1 Butanoic acid Buttersäure 3,0 Cacao beans Kakaobohnen 1,

Understanding the true meaning of dielectric constan

  1. Dielectric relaxation is the momentary delay (or lag) in the dielectric constant of a material. This is usually caused by the delay in molecular polarization with respect to a changing electric field in a dielectric medium (e.g., inside capacitors or between two large conducting surfaces)
  2. Material Formula Dielectric constant @1kHz Dielectric constant @1MHz Dielectric strength kV mm-1 Dissipation factor @ 1kHz Dissipation factor @ 1MHz Surface resistivity Ohm/sq Volume resistivity Ohm/cm Polyethylene - High density HDPE - 2.3-2.4 22 - 1-10 x 10-4 1013 1015-101
  3. What is Dielectric Constant or Dk? Created: May 14, 2019 Updated: March 16, 2020 most recent articles. Four Commonly Held Myths of EMC Design Don't get your ground plane, there's never really a good reason to do that. Dr. Hubing our guest for today is an.
  4. Substance DK-Value Substance DK-Value Caprylic acid 2.5 Acetal 3.8 Carbazole 1.3 Acetaldehyde 15 Carbon black 18.8 List of Dielectric Constants The following list of dielectric constants is based on approximate values for the substance listed in its natural state
  5. Dielectric Constant (k) is a number relating the ability of a material to carry alternating current to the ability of vacuum to carry alternating current.€ The capacitance created by the presence of the material is directly related to the Dielectric
  6. Dielectric Constant (DK) / Dissipation Factor (DF) Table Prepreg Data Glass Style Resin content % Standard/ Alternate Thickness (inch) Thickness (mm) Dielectric Constant (DK) / Dissipation Factor (DF) 100 MHz 500 MHz 1 GHz 2 GHz 5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz 20 GHz 106 72.5% Standard 0.0020 0.051 3.46 0.0047 3.45 0.0051 3.45 0.0056 3.44 0.0058 3.44 0.0058 3.44 0.0059 3.44 0.0059 3.4

In microwaves, we often refer to relative permittivity as the dielectric constant. These terms are interchangeable, but relative permittivity sounds more scholarly if you want to pretend to be a nerd. Saying relative dielectric constant is like Yogi Berra saying deja vu again. Quite often dielectric constant is referred to as DK or Dk

dielectric constants of common materials materials deg. f dielectric constant aluminum phosphate 6 aluminum powder 1.6-1.8 amber 2.8-2.9 aminoalkyd resin 3.9-4.2 ammonia -74 25 ammonia -30 22 ammonia 40 18.9 ammonia 69 16.5 ammonia (gas?) 32 1.0072 ammonium bromide 7.2 ammonium chloride 7 amyl acetate 68 5 amyl alcohol -180 35.5 amyl alcohol 68 15. Dielectric Constant (DK) / Dissipation Factor (DF) Table Prepreg Data Standard/ Alternate Glass Style Resin Content % Thickness (inch) Thickness (mm) Dielectric Constant (DK) / Dissipation Factor (DF) 2 GHz 5 Ghz 10 Ghz 15 Ghz 20 Ghz Alternate 1035 73.0% 0.0025 0.064 2.97 0.0019 2.97 0.0019 2.97 0.0019 2.97 0.0019 2.97 0.0019 Standard 1067 72.0% 0.0025 0.064 2.98 0.001 Two of the most important parameters describing plastics' dielectric behavior are dielectric constant and dissipation factor. Dk addresses how well an insulator stores electrical energy so as to isolate electrical elements from each other and the ground. The Dk of a substance is the ratio of two capacitance values: that of a capacitor made with the substance as the dielectric divided by the capacitance when a vacuum or air serves as the dielectric Betydelser av DK på Svenska Som nämnts ovan används DK som en förkortning i textmeddelanden för att representera Dielektrisk konstant. Den här sidan handlar om förkortningen DK och dess betydelser som Dielektrisk konstant. Observera att Dielektrisk konstant inte är den enda innebörden av DK

What is a Dielectric Constant of Plastic Materials

Dielectric constant, also called relative permittivity or specific inductive capacity, property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material The dielectric Constant of the material is very important, as this is then used to calculate the required dielectric spacing and track width Single Ended Impedance tracks looks like the following So watch out for customers stating FR4 with a DK of 3.5, as if they have used this in their design, they have used the wrong DK, Fr4 is more like a DK of 4 low dielectric constant * high dimensional stability The R/flex 3000 family of thin-film, flexible, adhesiveless liquid crystalline polymer laminates was developed specifically for use as a core for single layer or to build up multi-layer constructions Signal propagation speed occurs relative to the speed of light in a vacuum, which is defined in terms of a relative permittivity, or dielectric constant. The dielectric constant of FR4 ranges from 3.8 to 4.8, depending on the glass weave style, thickness, resin content, and copper foil roughness. In addition to the dielectric constant of FR4, the arrangement of traces and planes on a PCB laminate determine the effective dielectric constant for signals travelling in an interconnect

(PDF) Thermal Effects on PCB Laminate Material Dielectric

A PCB laminate dielectric constant is not really constant at high frequencies. The terms Dk and e r are used interchangeably and they mean the same thing. The dielectric constant is really a complex number, and there is an imaginary part that is sometimes called the dissipation factor, or Df From Keff, we convert to Dk using the transmission line's filling factor FF (further explained on this page). We define filling factor as the percentage of electric fields that are contained in the substrate (as opposed to in air). Keff is merely the weighted average of the substrate dielectric constant (Dk) and air (where Dk=1) The term Dk refers specifically to the real part of the dielectric constant (i.e., the refractive index), while the term Df refers to the imaginary part. Note that the imaginary part of the dielectric constant only determines losses, while the real and imaginary parts collectively determine dispersion Table 3. Er and Dk Values for Various Dielectric Materials Material Dielectric Constant (Er/Dk) Dissipation Factor (Df) Nelco 4000-6 4.1 @ 1 GHz 0.022 @ 1 GHz Nelco 4000-13 EP 3.7 @ 1 GHz 0.009 @ 1 GHz Rogers 4350B 3.48 @ 10 GHz 0.0037 @ 10 GH Dielectric constant @1MHz Dielectric strength kV mm-1 Dissipation factor @ 1kHz Dissipation factor @ 1MHz Surface resistivity Ohm/sq Volume resistivity Ohm/cm Polyphenylsulfone PPSu - - - - 0.005 >1013 >1014 Polypropylene PP - 2.2-2.6 30-40 - 0.0003 - 0.0005 1013 1016-1018.

This characteristic of any material refers to the variation in dielectric constant and absorption constant with signal frequency. Because signal propagation speed is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant, variations in Dk within the signal bandwidth cause different frequency components in a signal to travel with different velocities The dielectric constants (Dk) and loss tangents (dissipation factor, Df) are compared to BPA Epoxy and appear in Figures 10 and 11, respectively. Over the composition range studied, all networks exhibited very low dielectric properties. The dielectric properties were similar over the range studied

Managing PCB Materials: Dielectric Constant (Dk

  1. The Clausius-Mossotti relation expresses the dielectric constant (relative permittivity, ε r) of a material in terms of the atomic polarizability, α, of the material's constituent atoms and/or molecules, or a homogeneous mixture thereof.It is named after Ottaviano-Fabrizio Mossotti and Rudolf Clausius.It is equivalent to the Lorentz-Lorenz equation
  2. ateR-5785(N)/Prepreg R-5680(N) The ultra-low dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (Df) make MEGTRON 7 ideal for high speed and large data volumes associated with servers and routers required for 5G. The MEGTRON 7 family, including MEGTRON 7(N), MEGTRON 7(GE) and MEGTRON 7(GN), is High Density Interconnect (HDI.
  3. ates provide tight control on dielectric constant (Dk) and maintain low loss while utilizing the same processing method as standard epoxy/glass. Available at a fraction of the cost of conventional microwave la
  4. dielectric constants of common materials materials deg. f dielectric constant argon -376 1.5 argon 68 1.000513 arsenic tribromide 98 9 arsenic trichloride 150 7 arsenic trichloride 70 12.4 arsenic triiodide 302 7 arsine -148 2.5 asbestos 3-3.5 asbestos 4.8 ash (fly) 1.7 - 2.0 asphalt 75 2.6 asphalt, liquid 2.5-3.2 azoxyanisole 122 2.3.
  5. ate is an important electrical property needed to accurately design a target characteristic impedance. It will affect the characteristic impedance of a transmission line and the time delay of the line. If you hope to achieve a specific target characteristic impedance on the first pass, it is essential to know the Dk of each la

Dielectric Constant, Strength, & Loss Tangent - RF Caf

Rogers PCB Dielectric Constant Design (DK) should be used for simulation and design. The process DK is tested by IPC defined test method. Tested coupons are raw dielectric material - this process of testing is used to monitor the dielectric performance, to check if it meets the manufacturing test limits Dielectric Constant (DK) Arc resistance Seconds 60 min. 125 2.5.1 UL-746A ASTM D3638 175-250 (CL=3) Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) Volts - 2.4.4 2.4.8 Test Method (IPC-TM-650 or As noted) 6.0 (1.05) 8.0(1.40) Lb/inch (N/mm) Peel Strength (spec minimum) 50,000 min. 60,000 min. 0.35 max. Specification Typical Value Property UNITS 60,000. Dk measurement . methods have similar disparities. Introduction. Currently, although there are many standard IPC test methods, there is no industry commonality in the actual methods used to evaluate high frequency laminate materials for dielectric loss (Df) and dielectric constant (Dk). As the industry moves t These polymers exhibit the average dielectric constant (Dk) of lower than 2.6, and the polymer with adamantane units displays the lowest Dk of 2.26 and the average dielectric loss (Df) of.

Relative permittivity - Wikipedi

  1. The dielectric constant (Dk) or relative dielectric constant of the PCB circuit board material is not a constant constant-although it looks like a constant from its name. For example, the Dk of a material will vary with frequency. Similarly, if different Dk test methods are used on the same material, different Dk values may also be measured.
  2. Dielectric constants can be lowered via porosity (air = 1). pores Dielectric Dielectric Constants and Porosity Ref: C.-H. Jan, IEDM Short Course, 2003. 9 ta nfo rdU ivesy 17 EE311/ Low-k Dielectrics araswat Material Options: Porous Silicate Glass Xerogel/Aerogel Porous Organo Silicate Glas
  3. ate is a fixed value for all microwave scenarios. In reality this is not the case.The Dk value found on datasheets for la
  4. ed in an actual test Cell. Values for many materials are published on the internet. Media Constant
  5. Understanding Dielectric Constant and Loss. Signal fade or loss occurs either by the reflection of the signal from the surface of the composite or via absorption by heating of the matrix. The dielectric constant (Dk) offers an idea of the reflective properties, as well as the refractive properties of a material
  6. This says that the only terms that affect SDD21 from dielectric loss are the dissipation factor, Df, and as a second order term, the dielectric constant, Dk. The transmission line physical design, such as dielectric thickness, line width, or even characteristic impedance have no effect on the insertion loss from the dielectric loss mechanism
  7. Product Performance Table 2 - DuPont™ Pyralux® FR Coverlay Properties Property FR0110 Typical Value Test Method Dielectric Constant (Dk) 1 MH

Digging Deeper into Dielectric Constant for PCB Materials

or dielectric constant or Dk) it will: • have slower velocity • have a shorter wavelength • and the amplitude is reduced . Basic ElectroMagnetic Concepts for PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Circuit with low Dk Circuit with high Dk PCB loss tangent values are derived from the substrate's dielectric constant. If you look through most engineering texts, the definition of a dielectric constant (Dk value) has a pesky negative sign, and it's still a mystery to me why this is present in the electrical engineer's version of Dk dielectric constant and loss tangent at room temperature. Table 1 - Example on the characteristics of selected dielectric materials at room temperature and at frequency 2.45 GHz. There are many methods developed for measuring the complex permittivity and permeability and each method is limited to specific frequencies, materials, application

  1. QUESTION: What is dielectric constant (dK)? ANSWER: Dielectric constant is the ability of a dielectric to store electrical potential energy under the influence of an electric field. An increase in the signal amplitude is directly proportional to an increase in the dielectric constant. The value is usually given relative to a vacuum/dry air: the dielectric constant of air is 1..
  2. The dielectric constant k is the relative permittivity of a dielectric material. It is an important parameter in characterizing capacitors.It is unfortunate that the same symbol k is often used for Coulomb's constant, so one must be careful of this possible confusion.It is more typical of physics texts to use the form 1/4πε 0: for Coulomb's constant
  3. The Dielectric Constant, or permittivity - ε - is a dimensionless constant that indicates how easy a material can be polarized by imposition of an electric field on an insulating material. The constant is. the ratio between the actual material ability to carry an alternating current to the ability of vacuum to carry the curren

Dielectric - Wikipedi

The dielectric loss of dielectric materials depends on their current frequency, dielectric constant (Dk), and dissipation factor (Df). Consequently, the dielectric loss increases with an increase in the current frequency. The general method for reducing this loss is to use low Dk and Df materials The dielectric constant (Dk) of plastic or dielectric or insulating material can be defined as the ratio of the charge stored in an insulating material placed between two metallic plates to the charge that can be stored when the insulating material is replaced by vacuum or air. It is also called as electric permittivity or simply permittivity 介质在外加电场时会产生感应电荷而削弱电场,原外加电场(真空中)与最终介质中电场比值即为介电常数(permittivity),又称诱电率,与频率相关。介电常数是相对介电常数与真空中绝对介电常数乘积。如果有高介电常数的材料放在电场中,电场的强度会在电介质内有可观的下降 When an electric field [representing the signal] travels in a dielectric material, like a circuit board laminate, the speed of light slows down with the square root of the dielectric constant, Dk. For example, in FR4, the Dk is 4, so the speed of light in most laminate materials i

What is Dielectric Constant or Dk? Altiu

Flexible circuit board materials LCP(Liquid Crystal

Dielectric Constant: Definition, Units, Formula, Plastic

  1. dre än 3,9 och en förlustfaktor (Df) av
  2. limitations by allowing epoxy resin systems to achieve much lower Dk/Df properties, and the PTFE-based systems to use a higher glass loading. At 10 GHz L-Glass fiber has a dielectric constant of 4.86 and a dissipation factor of 0.0050 whereas E-Glass has a dielectric constant of 6.81 and a dissipation factor of 0.0060 at 10 GHz
  3. It can measure PCB test coupon impedance, cables and bad crimps, trace length, dielectric constant (Dk), and velocity factor (V f). This application note shows how to measure PCB, cable, and interconnect impedance, dielectric constant, velocity factor and cable length with J2151A. Theory of the TDR Measuremen

John Coonrod discusses why there are so many different dielectric constants (Dk) that are used in the microwave printed circuit board industry

In the paper, Impact of TIM Dielectric Constant on EMI Radiation, Laird staff scientist Paul Dixon shares his analysis and notes that the findings suggest design engineers who utilize low dK thermal interface materials (TIMs) can ensure that the electromagnetic interference radiation (EMI) produced by the system will not increase The standard PREPERM ® grades cover a wide range of dielectric constants. Often, you need to have more than one Dk in a product. To make it easier to separate different dielectric constants from one another, we offer a full range of coloured granules, one colour for each Dk 1 Solventmp bpD 4 20 n D 20 ε R D µ Acetic acid 17 118 1.049 1.3716 6.15 12.9 1.68 Acetone -95 56 0.788 1.3587 20.7 16.2 2.85 Acetonitrile -44 82 0.782 1.3441 37.5 11.1 3.4

where ε =dielectric constant, A=component electrode surface area, t=thickness. In the more common expression, C=Kε 0 A/t, K=relative dielectric constant (since this is the more widely advertised material property) but it is quickly multiplied by ε 0 so the end result is the same dielectric constant k x 8.854 F/cm more than that of silicon nitride (k > 7) are classified as high dielectric constant materials, while those with a value of k less than the dielectric constant of sil-icon dioxide (k < 3.9) are classified as the low dielectric constant materials. The minimum value of (k) is one for air. Th Dielectric Materials. A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in a conductor, but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization

Microwaves101 Permittivit

The key difference between dielectric constant and dielectric strength is that dielectric constant is the ratio between the capacitance of an insulating material and the capacitance of vacuum whereas dielectric strength is the electrical strength of an insulating material.. Dielectric constant is a ratio and has no units of measurement while dielectric strength has the SI unit volts per meter. The dielectric constant of most silicon nitride materials is greater than 7. Although it is suitable for many applications, a lower dielectric constant is often preferred. ATC has developed a low dielectric constant silicon nitride called R educed-Density I njection-Moldable P ressureless- S intered Silicon Nitride ( RIPS) that has a dielectric constant which is tailorable over the range of 4.

The value for the dielectric constant on the copper layers in the cross section form is the value of the pre-preg material that flows around the copper traces. I.e. the dielectric of the parts of the layer that aren't copper.-----Ron Dallas Design Technology Group, Teradyne, Inc. ph: 978-370-2585 e-mail: ron.dallas@teradyne.co Dielectric constant and dielectric strength of some Polymers Compound Dielectric Constant, ε (1 MHz) Dielectric Strength (kV/cm) Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) 2.0 - 2.1 600 - 700 Air 1.0 15 - 30 Silicone Oil 2.5 150 Distilled Water 80 65 - 7 List of Dielectric Constants Note: Minimum recommended dielectric constants: LR01 Free Space Radar ≥1.8 (Direct Mode); ≥1.1 (TBF Mode) LG01 Guided Wave Radar ≥1.4 (Direct Mode with Coaxial Antenna); ≥1.1 (TBF Mode) Substance Dielectric Substance Dielectric Substance Dielectric Acetal (25°C) 3.8 Carbon black 18.8 Ethyl mercaptan 6.

There are several discontinuities in the dielectric constant as temperature changes. First of all, the dielectric constant will change suddenly at phase boundaries. This is because the structure changes in a phase change and, as we have seen above, the dielectric constant is strongly dependent on the structure The dielectric constant is the measure of how much that capacitance increased when you insert that material. It's the ratio of the capacitor's capacitance with the material, to its capacitance. Dielectric Constant. The dielectric constant of a substance is the ratio of the permittivity of the substance to the permittivity of the free space. It shows the extent to which a material can hold electric flux within it. Dielectric Constant Formula. Mathematically dielectric constant is: k= \(\frac{\epsilon_{0}}{\epsilon }\) here, κ is the. Since the dielectric constant is just a ratio of two similar quantities, it is dimensionless. Given its definition, the dielectric constant of vacuum is 1. A ny material is able to polarize more than vacuum, so the k of a material is always > 1. Note that the dielectric constant is also a function of.

What We Didn't Know About Dielectric Properties of

What is the abbreviation for Dielectric Constant? What does DC stand for? DC abbreviation stands for Dielectric Constant Dielectric constant should not be mistaken for dielectric strength, which instead is the maximum electric field a pure material is able to sustain before it ionises and starts to conduct electricity. In this article, you will learn about: What dielectric constant is; The measurement of dielectric constant

Figure 1, Relative Dielectric Constant vs. Frequency for Several Laminate Types Another source of relative dielectric constant variation is the ratio of reinforcement or glass to resin used to make a laminate. Figure 2 shows how the relative dielectric constant of a standard FR-4 laminate changes with the ratio of glass to resin. This char I have read the privacy policy and accept it. I agree that KROHNE stores my personal data in order to inform me about the selected areas by e-mail. I can revoke my consent at any time for the future Thin films of amorphous boron nitride are mechanically and electrically robust, prevent diffusion of metal atoms into semiconductors and have ultralow dielectric constants that exceed current.

The most common standards for determining the dielectric constant for a sample are ASTM D150 and AS4373 Method 501. The ASMT D150 standard is used to determine various properties of a dielectric material, such as the dissipation factor and loss index, where the AS4373 standard focuses on just the dielectric constant of a wire sample's insulation The chart provides the dielectric constant value of hundreds of liquid and solids type media. Dielectric Constant - Flowline Liquid & Solid Level Sensors, Switches & Controllers Abou

DK definition: Dielektrisk konstant - Dielectric Constan

for dielectric constant of metals. • Conduction Current in Metals • EM Wave Propagation in Metals • Skin Depth • Plasma Frequency Ref : Prof. Robert P. Lucht, Purdue University. Drude model zDrude model : Lorenz model (Harmonic oscillator model) without restoration forc Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.phpWebsite video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/dielectrics-and-dielectric-constantFacebook link: http..

dielectric constant Definition, Formula, Units, & Facts

find the dielectric constant of a given material. made by sashikant tiwari. 1. To find the dielectric constant of a substance. 1.Dielectric constant kit. 2.One solid bakelite plate to be inserting in gap of test capacitor For these materials, the dielectric constant does not vary significantly with frequency below visible frequencies, and κ S ≈ n 2 where κ S is the static dielectric constant. To summarise: the equation κ = n 2 can be applied to the static dielectric constants of non-polar materials only, or to the high-frequency dielectric constants of any dielectric Dielectric constant of PI/inorganic (a) with 30 wt% inorganic content at varying frequency and (b) at 1MHz for several type of inorganic fillers. All composite systems displayed a decreased in dielectric constant with the increase in frequencies. The dielectric constants increased as the inorganic filler content were increased Determine the dielectric constant of the given liquid 1. Diksha Thakur 2. Dielectrics are the materials having electric dipole moment permanently. Dipole: A dipole is an entity in which equal positive and negative charges are separated by a small distance. Dipole moment : The product of magnitude of either of the charges and separation distanc

What We Didn&#39;t Know About Dielectric Properties of

Understanding the true meaning of dielectric constant

The dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (Df) of printed circuit board (PCB) laminate materials are affected by the proportions of certain raw materials (resin, fiberglass, and optionally, filler) present in the finished product [1-7] the dielectric constant by applying customized electromagnetic simulation based on a new rapid plane solver instead of analytical equations. For PCB dielectrics, the loss tangent tends to be flat over several decades. The dielectric constant then varies as a func-tion of frequency based on the Kronig-Kramers relations. Thi

AeroZero® Polymer Aerogels - Blueshift MaterialsHigh-speed Transmission FPC|Product Information|Sumitomo

The relationships between the structure and the dielectric properties of polyimides (PIs) were extensively studied to construct universal correlations of dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (Df) on the structural parameters. In this study, 36 kinds of PIs with a plethora of functional groups including ether, fluorine, amide, ester, ketone, sulfide, sulfone, and alkane groups were. Our goal is to measure various molding compound dielectric constant (Dk) and loss tangent (DF) properties to arrive at best material consistent with other attributes (MSL reliability). Characterization of transfer molding effects on RF performance of power amplifier module. Our goal. Dielectric Constant Pentane 1.84 Hexane 1.88 (25°C) Heptane 1.92 Iso-Octane 1.94. The large dielectric constant means that substances whose molecules contain ionic bonds will tend to dissociate in water yielding solutions containing ions The dielectric constant is a measure of the amount of electric potential energy, in the form of induced polarization that is stored in a given volume of material under the action of an electric field. It is expressed as the ratio of the dielectric permittivity of the material to that of a vacuum or dry air The variation in FR4 dielectric constant vs. frequency is called dispersion, which causes different frequency components in an electrical pulse in a PCB trace to travel with different velocities. With positive dispersion (the dielectric constant increases with frequency), higher frequency components arrive at a load later than lower frequency components, and vice versa for negative dispersion

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